Examples: their Sudan – Sudan their Congo – Congo, their Argentine Argentina their Ukraine – Ukraine, their Crimea – Crimea, their Caucasus – Caucasus, etc.
7. Certain article is used with the names of countries consisting of more than one word .
A certain article is also used with the names of hotels, cinemas, theaters, newspapers and magazines.
Please note that in the case described above, the use of an indefinite article is not mandatory. If you do not want to allocate a certain number of any emotion, character traits, etc., Artikl a / AN. You can not use.
Before the names of continents, countries, cities, streets:
Names Own are usually used without articles, for example: Moscow, New York, Elizabeth, Trafalgar Square, ELBRUS.
In the In The Morning, In The Afternoon, In The Evening and Dr.:
Certain Article The Used in English in the following cases:
With the names of sports Articles not used:
9. A certain article is used with the following words :
13. A certain article is used with ordinal numerical .
In many cases, the use of the articles is regulated by grammatical rules, but in some cases is traditional. Such cases need to be memorized.
aN A. pple aN E. nGineer, aN I. dea, an O. range aN A. nSWER, aN. Hour
aT a Quarter Past Two – a quarter of the third Go for a Walk – go for a walk Have a Good Time – Have time to spend time Have a look – take a look IN A HURRY – WELCOMES IN A LOW / LOUD VOICE – quiet / loud IT’s a Pity! – Sorry! IT’s a Pleasure! – Very nice! IT’s A Shame! – Shame!
There are two articles in English: uncertain — a. I. certain — their .
Before geographic names The North Sea Is Located in the North. – The North Sea is in the north.
There are still many sustainable expressions with their articles in English, but the knowledge presented above is enough to study the language.
16. Certain article is used with names of nationalities .
Article – This is a special official word in english language which is used in front of the noun. The article is often not translated into Russian. In English, Article is a determinant of the noun and is not an independent part of speech. Additionally about.
1. A certain article is used before the calculated nouns, if from the situation / preceding experience / context, it is clear about what subject or face is we talking about .
6. Certain article is used with names of rivers, canals, seas, oceans, islands, mountain chains, deserts, lakes .
In English – unlike Russian – special words are widely used – articles. Article and the rules for its use in English are presented below in the examples to facilitate the perception of the required material. In English, two articles are distinguished – a certain their And uncertain a. . Article is mostly raised only before noun. The indefinite article is applied exclusively to the calculated nouns in the singular, and a certain article can be applied to various nouns in the only and multiple number , regardless of whether they are calculated or not.
In English, the nouns almost never can stand in itself. With him must be to define some kind of define. It may be a pronoun, and in the absence of the British put articture. In English, there will be a rough mistake not to put the determinant, so if you are going to use the noun in the proposal, you immediately think what article to put. You can not decide on the type of articles, put a making or index pronoun instead.
10. Certain article is used with adit oNLY – Only, Last – last, First – first .
When we talk about the profession or man’s work, we also use an indefinite article a / AN. :
Examples: IT WAS. the First. Time I Was Ever in Love. – It was for the first time when I fell in love. I HAD. the Only. Dream to Become An Engineer Designer of the Electronic Devices. – I had the only dream to become an electronic equipment designer engineer.
Indefinite article a / AN. We also use in order to describe or give any information about what has already mentioned earlier. In this case, the adjective is often used before noun. Please note that, although the article stands before adjective, it applies to the name noun:
She Wants. a. car But He Says the Don’t Need one. . “She wants a car, but he says that they don’t need it.” or She Wants. a. car But He Says the Don’t Need a car . – She wants a car, but he says that they do not need a car. She wants to have a car , But he says that they do not need a car . Since in the second part of the sentence, we are talking again about any / uncertain machine, then we use again a car .
Indefinite article a / AN. can also be used with some innumerable abstract nouns In the case when they have adjectives with them. Typically, such a use of an indefinite article is typical for a book style and expresses the desire of the author to emphasize the individual, particular nature of a particular abstract concept.
Examples: We Met. a girl. In The Park. The Girl Was a Famous Actress. – In the park we met a girl. This girl was a famous actress. Please close the Book . – Close the book, please.
Also, the article is not used with the names of its own .
Have questions about the topic? Specify them in the comments.
Examples: their Sun – the Sun , their Moon – Moon , their Sky – Sky , their Eiffel Tower – Eiffel Tower , their Captain – Captain , their Chief is a chef , their Window – window , their Earth – Earth , BUT! Noun Earth. In the meaning of one of the planets used without articles and writes with a capital letter So according to the rule of the name of the planets are used without article.
Indefinite article A / AN. It is also used when it is necessary to designate the amount per unit of measurement. For example, when we are talking about the price of oranges per kilogram, about the size of wages per month, about the number of classes per week or the speed of the car per hour. The noun denoting this one is the same unit of measurement, and will be used with an uncertain article.
Examples: their Rich – rich their Young – youth, their Homeless – homeless, etc.
I. have Got. ONE SISTER . – I have one sister. I Have Got. a sister . – I have a sister.
For example, a word hour starts with a vowel sound, so we use article an Although in writing the first consonant h. . Or, for example, the word yacht written with a vowel letter y. but pronounced the consonant sound , so we choose a . The use of different forms of one and the same article helps to make speech congestive, easy, natural. Try to pronounce a Apple. or an Book. And you will feel how difficult it is inconvenient.
When solving, three cases are possible to put three cases: a certain article, an indefinite article and zero articles . Consider all options:
Examples: their United Kingdom. Of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Connection Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, their United States of America – the USA. – United States of America, their Philippines – Philippines, their United Arab Emirates – United Arab Emirates, their Netherlands – Netherlands, etc.
* – Here is meant one unknown cow as a representative of the entire type of cows. But if it says not about one subject, but about the whole class of objects, then it is set to a certain article:
Yesterday I Bought. a Handbag . The Handbag. IS Very Beautiful. – Yesterday I bought a handbag. The handbag is very beautiful.
C names of countries, lakes, mountains , islands, cities, continents, streets, squares, airports Articles are not used. Exceptions:
As an exception, a certain article is used with the following countries and locations :
Artikl is a service word showing that the word standing behind him is a noun, and describing some of its signs. Articles allow you to distinguish from other parts of speech. They are performed by other tasks.
Examples: their Piano – Piano, their Violin – Violin, their Double-Bass – Double Bass, their Guitar – guitar, etc.
Indefinite article A / AN. In English has two forms:
Examples: Show Me. the Magazine tHAT I GAVE YOU 2 WEEKS AGO . – Show me a magazine that I gave you 2 weeks ago. The Key. lying Near the Pillar IS MINE. – The key lying near my rack.
Definite article. It is used in the following cases:
Another example: if at the beginning of the word letter h. pronounced, then you need to put a. , but if not pronounced, then aN. .
Note: if the noun in the attache performs the adjective function, the use of articles is possible, for example: Paul Is a man’s name . Paula Is. A Woman’s Name . IT’s A. children’s Bicycle. .
5. Certain article is used with the names of cinemas, hotels, museums, galleries, newspapers and magazines, ships .
Certain article must be used with the following geographic names:
Before transport facilities, when moving on them: by bus, by car, by plane, by ship other:
Before the name of professions or childbirth activities:
Certain articles comes from the index pronouns that. . It allocates a specific object from the number of similar .
Precisely with the origin from the numerical one And the meaning of the unnecessary articles is connected, which is especially manifested when expressing time measures, distance, weight or quantity:
Examples: their Queen – Queen, their Prince – Prince, their Lord – Lord, BUT! Queen Victoria – Queen Victoria, Prince William – Prince William, Lord BYRON – Lord Byron, etc.
This Toy Costs. a thouusand. Roubles = This Toy Costs one Thousand d Roubles. – This toy is worth a thousand rubles . Give Me. a dozen. , Please. = Give Me. oNE DOZEN. , Please. – Give me a dozen, please .
Examples: St. Paul’s Cathedral – St. Cathedral Paul Madame Tussaud’s Museum – Madame Tussao Museum Covent Garden – Opera House “Covent Garden” MacDonald’s – McDonalds Westminster ABBEY – Westminster Abbey Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace Edinburgh Castle – Edinburgh Castle London Zoo – London Zoo Scotland Yard – Scotland Yard
In the absence of articles, they also say that there is zero artity.
Below you will find a description of the basic cases of using an indefinite article a / AN. in English.
Yesterday I Bought. a Handbag . IT. IS Very Beautiful. – Yesterday I bought a handbag. She is very beautiful.
Indefinite article A / AN. Used when we are not talking about this subject or person, but just about any, about some kind of group of such subjects or people. In other words, when we talk about the subject or face in general, without meaning the specific skirt , work , handle or dog :
Uncertain article is used in the following cases:
Note that numeral one. instead of artikal a / AN. You should only use if you want to emphasize that we are talking about one subject or face, that is, when you want to be very accurate:
First, let’s remember, in what cases the article is not used. Article is not used if it is worth , assisting or , another noun in the assistant case , or denial “NO” . Examples:
Articles never find themselves under stress and merge into speech with the word going beyond them. In the presence of the adjective articles is put in front of him. Compare: An Apple – a Big Green Apple.
Undefined article comes from numeral one. . It is usually not translated into Russian, but it would be possible to translate it as ” grammar articles flowers one”, “one of” or “some”, “some kind of”. Therefore, an uncertain article can be consumed only with the calculated nouns and only in the singular. ‘
– What a beautiful color! – What a Tasty Cake! – What a Good Girl!
14. Certain article is used with words morning – Morning, Afternoon – Day, Evening – Evening .
This Chocolate Bar Costs a Dollar. . – This chocolate tile is worth the dollar. I’ll Call You in an Hour. . – I’ll call you in an hour. CAN I Have. a kilo. Of Tomatoes, Please? – Can I kilogram tomatoes, please?
Examples: their Hague – Hague, their Athens – Athens, their Vatican – Vatican et al.
Examples: beach. – Beach, cinema. – cinema, city. – city, cOUNTRY – countryside, ground – land, jungle – Jungle, library. – library, pub. – bar, radio. – radio sEA. – sea, seaside. – coast, station – railway station, shop. – score, theatre. – theatre, world – Peace, etc.
Examples: their DNEPR – Dnipro, their Panama Canal – Panama Canal, their Black Sea – Black Sea, their Pacific Ocean – Pacific Ocean, their Hawaiian Islands – Hawaiian Islands, their Bahamas – Bahamas, their Urals – Ural Mountains, their Sahara Desert – Sugar Desert, their Ontario – Ontario and others. BUT! Lake Superior – Lake Top Leech Lake – lich LOCH Ness – Loch Ness
Article is not used with innumerable noun, denoting an indefinite amount of substance or an abstract concept:
Although most often instead of a noucent, personal pronoun is used, it sounds natural and avoids repeats:
IT IS. a. beautiful. place. . – It beautiful place . He is a. Clever boy . – He is a smart boy. Do You Live In a. Big house. ? – Do you live in a big house?
Examples: their first – first their Second – second, their Fifteenth – Fifteenth, their Second Unit – second lesson, BUT Unit 1 – lesson 1, etc.
Before the innumerable nouns, if they are considered abstract, general concepts :
Examples: their Ukrainian – Ukrainians, their BELORUSSIAN – Belarusians their English – British, their Dutch – Dutch, etc.
Examples: Nicole Is. the Best. Friend. – Nicole – the best friend. Winter Is. the Coldest. Season of the year. – Winter is the coldest season of the year.
Certain articles are used in the following cases:
When using articles, it is important to take into account, in which number there is a noun and what is its type, namely: a nominal one or its own, calculated or incurred, distrastructure or specific.
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Before the estimated noun in the plural, if in the singular in front of them there would be an uncertain article:
Zero Article. Article is absent in the case of:
To learn how to use an indefinite article a / AN. More or less automatically, try to form in my head such a rule: use an indefinite article with calculated nouns in the singular when there are no other reasons for using a specific article their or any other identifier .
Note! If in the name of the urban object there is a name settlement or human name , then article is not used .
When writing and pronunciation of articles, it is important from what sound the word begins, and not with what letter. For example, if the initial letter u. read as , then you need to put aN. , but if like, then – a. .
The Oranges Were 80 Roubles a kilo . – Oranges cost 80 rubles per kilogram. She Works. 8 Hours a Day . – She works 8 hours a day. I Go to Aerobics twice A Week . – I go to aerobics twice a week.
18. A certain article is used with titles .
go to the Theater / Cinema – Go to the theater / Cinema IN THE COUNTRY – OUT THE CITY, in the village IN THE MORNING / AFTERNOON / EVENING – in the morning / day / evening Keep. the House. – stay home ON / TO THE RIGHT / LEFT – Right / Left, left PLAY THE PIANO / GUITAR – Play a piano / guitar The Other Day – the other day What is the time? – What time is it now?
Undefined article in front of the words that begin with a consonant sound, is used in the form a. , for example: a desk , a book ; Before words that begin with a vowel sound – in the form aN. , for example: An Animal , An Eye . The name of the articles itself always sounds .
aN. – used before vicinities. That is, if the word starts with a vowel sound, used aN. :
When we are not talking about a certain subject or face, but about any, then, if we need to re-design it, we do not use personal pronouns or a certain article their . And again we use an indefinite article a / AN. or pronoun one. .
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17. Certain article is used with the surname when it comes to the whole family .
If you continue to talk about this bag, then the noun handbag will be used with a specific article their Since this time the interlocutor knows what a specific bag is talking about:
8. Certain article is used with the following city names :
Articles used with flowers. Using a specific article in English grammar articles flowers
have a Look – take a look have a snack – to eat have a try. – try to try have a Rest. – relax have a. good time – have a good time give. a chance – give a chance give. a hint. – Hint give. a LIFT. – Lift make a Mistake – Embossed play. a Trick. – play a trick
She IS. a Teacher. . – She is a teacher. I am. a doctor . – I am a doctor.
Examples: their Petrovs – Petrov family, their Browns – the family of Brownov, etc.
Examples: iN. their Morning – in the morning IN. their Afternoon – day, IN. their Evening – in the evening.
The meaning of the unnecessary articles can be seen in some stable phrases transmitting a variety of action:
3. A certain article is used with nouns, which denote unique, sole-in-kind, items, or the only objects in these conditions.
In its original meaning, that is, in the meaning of “one”:
Historically, vague artikl A / AN. originated from numeral one . Hence the opportunity in some cases to replace Article a / AN. NUMBER one. . Such a replacement is possible when articles a / AN. In essence, means “one”. For example, this value of an uncertain article is observed in numeral a HUNDRED , a thouusand , a Million and in the word a dozen. When they are used independently or in front of the noun:
After expressions some of …, Any of …, Many Of …, Little Of … other:
a B. ook, a T. able a M. aN, a G. iRL a C. oMPUTER, a T. omato, a. yacht a. Unit
pens. , stories. , chairs. , children. , flowers.
2. A certain article is used before nouns with the definition which indicates what exactly we are talking about.
Examples: their Odeon – Cinema “Odeon”, their Astoria – Hotel Astoria, their British Museum – British Museum, their Tate Gallery – Tate Gallery, their Times – Times newspaper, their Santa Maria – ship “Santa Maria” and others.
We reflected the basic rules for the use of articles. There are many nuances, and the framework of one article does not allow to mention everything. But we have prepared another video tutorial about some complex cases of articles use:
In front of the noun, which mean a generalized view of some class of objects, while the noun is common:
We hope that the foregoing will help you deal with articles in English and correctly use them in your speech, but do not forget that the repetition is the mother of the teaching, do not be lazy to revise the rules as often as possible.
It’s important to know! If in cases of 1-5 are used innumerable nouns , then the article is also missing. All these cases are similar to the use of an indefinite article with the calculated nouns in the singular.
Definite article their Before words that begin with a consonant sound, pronounced as , for example: The Table , The Pen ; Before words that begin with a vowel sound, – as , for example: The Apple , The ARM . The name of the very artist is always pronounced as .
Indefinite article a / AN. It is used when we first mention any subject or a person. In this case, we assume that our interlocutor does not know what or about whom we are talking.
Undefined article is “a” / “AN” – this is not an independent article, but a form of an indefinite, which is used in front of the noun, which begin with a vowel sound: An Apple, An Orange.
Yesterday I Bought. a Handbag . – Yesterday I bought a handbag. Until that moment, I did not talk about what I was going to buy a bag. That is, I mention this for the first time , hence indefensible articles a / AN. .
If the noun is pronoun or they stand in a drawing case:
I WANT TO BUY a Skirt . – I want to buy a skirt. He refused to look for a job . – He refused to look for a job. Give Me. a Pen. , Please. – Give me a handle, please. IT IS. a Dog. . – This is a dog.
4. A certain article is used in front of the noun, which means not a separate item, but the whole class in general .
Examples: The Lion. IS A WILD ANIMAL. – Lion – wild animal. The Pine IS An Evergreen Tree. – Pine – evergreen tree.
With expressions denoting some subject: A FEW, A LITTLE, rose is a beautiful flower article